Jump to content
Arkivverket
Lars E. Øyane

Kva er ein teutenhandlar?

Recommended Posts

Lars E. Øyane
Posted (edited)

Eg er på kontinentet, særleg i Nederland, Belgia og Tyskland, komen over uttrykket TEUTENHANDEL, nytta om folk som dreiv med omreisande handel med alt frå tobakk til tekstilar

 

Men eg finn ikkje noki god omsetjing av dette ordet.  Til og med på engelsk vert det omsett med teutel trade.

 

Ei belgisk forklaring omsett via google: https://ww.google.com/search?client=firefox-b-d&q=google+translate

 

http://teuten.lingers.eu/Ontstaan.php

 

KAN det vera noko av det same som me i Noreg kjenner som «tuskhandel» - byttehandel?

 

Eg takkar so mykje på førehand for alle gode tips!

Edited by Lars E. Øyane

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
Leif B. Mathiesen
Posted (edited)

Jeg fant dette

https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Teut_(handel)

 

og oversatter siden med google translate (chrome)

 

A teut was a traveling trader or craftsman who traveled from his home base in Westphalia or the Kempen with his merchandise on his back to the Netherlands, Germany, France, Luxembourg or even Denmark. The spring moved to other regions in the spring to wander around there or to keep a shop open. In the winter they returned to spend their time at home. Comparable traders are called Tödden in Germany ( Westfalen ) . In the Northern Netherlands people also know the Rusluie from Vriezenveen . Teuten distinguished himself from ordinary pedlarsdue to a tight organization level in companies with characteristics of a guild .

Research has shown that the term teut probably had no official meaning, because the word rarely appears in deeds. [source?] Knippenberg 's book [1] is regarded as a turning point in the study of the trade in teuten. The archives of the trading companies from Luyksgestel , organized after the example of the VOC , are an important source of information. Extensive research into these traders has also been carried out in Lommel , where many teuten lived.

The Teuten organized in small groups. The Teut communities had a complex organization. In most cases, they worked in companies to mitigate trading risks. The admission requirements were usually clearly defined and set down in writing. It was important that participants were of good behavior. [source?]

The word "teut" probably comes from teutoons, German . [source?] According to another etymological explanation, the name would come from the German word tüte , tas .

Origin [ edit | edit source text ]

The first teuten are mentioned in the early 17th century. The oldest report is from a copper teut in Eersel , from 1597 . The teuten company may have arisen from a switch of transporters (feeders) to trade as a result of the Eighty Years' War . In addition, the profession of coppersmith or tinker is mentioned, which was already practiced in these regions. The sailors would then have switched to the itinerant trade in copperware when land transport stopped due to the war . This activity continued until about 1890 , but even in the early 20th century, there were still a few touts.

Distribution [ edit | edit source text ]

The phenomenon of teuten trade occurred in some countries. The Westphalian form from Mettingen and the surrounding area is known because it resulted in the textile group C&A . This trade also occurred in the Kempen and almost exclusively in the Limburg part of it. The core area lay between the towns of Lommel , Achel , Hamont , Bocholt , Neerpelt , Hechtel and Eksel . In the Netherlands, teutes came from the villages of Luyksgestel , Stramproy , Tungelroy , Budel , Maarheeze ,Valkenswaard , Leenderstrijp and Soerendonk . [source?] Limburg Teuten also lived elsewhere in an elongated area, stretching from Retie in the Antwerp Kempen to Roggel Middenlimburg and from Veldhoven in Noord-Brabant to Wijchmaal in Belgian Limburg. This was an area that ran through several state borders. It should be noted that Lommel then belonged to the Northern Netherlands and Luyksgestel to the Principality of Liège.

Types of Teuten [ edit | edit source text ]

Six groups can be distinguished:

  • The tinkers , gorenuten or copper teuten : They formed about half of the Teuten. Not only did they repair damaged pots and pans, but they also sold new brassware such as pots, pans, kitchen utensils, locks, and sometimes even firearms. They occasionally took blacksmith equipment with them in a backpack.
  • The suit carriers or tafts: They traded in hats, handkerchiefs, stockings, bed linen, ticking, lace, silk and other textiles. The Brenninkmeyers, founders of C&A, are the best known example of this.
  • The cutters or animal lubers: They specialized in spaying horses, pigs, bulls and sheep. Sometimes they also traded in these animals, so that they linked the profession of a cattle merchant with that of a veterinarian.
  • The hair tips: They only joined later and are a good example of responding to the changing economic demand. When Louis XIV of France started wearing a wig, a new fad arose, namely wearing a wig. These guys took advantage of this and bought the hair of young farming daughters to sell it to wig makers in the cities.
  • The echeltes : They traded in leeches , which were used for medicinal purposes. These teuten are known, among others, from Hapert in North Brabant .
  • The Jelly (Gleiswerk) Teuten: They traded in pottery.

The company [ edit | edit source text ]

The committee members and the independent members were distinguished . The first worked for a client, a wholesaler or manufacturer, and the second category bought the goods itself and therefore had to be financially strong. Supply took place in company houses , which existed in various places in the commercial area. This area stretched from Antwerp to deep in the Rhineland and from the Ardennes to Gelderland. [source?]

Denmark [ edit | edit source text ]

The copper buddies from Luyksgestel moved to Denmark from the 17th to the 19th centuries , where they met in Faaborg , Horsens and Flensburg . The latter city has belonged to Germany since 1920 . In 1627 a spruce from Luyksgestel in Denmark was first reported, a country with which intensive contact had existed for centuries. The Crusauer Kupfer-Messing Fabrik was located in Flensburg, where the teuten bought their supplies. Krusau (Danish: Kruså ) is now on the Danish-German border. The factory was powered by a water mill and operated from the early 17th century. The company closed in 1842 bankrupt, after which the teuten bought their wares in Faaborg.

Teuten from Limburg were Catholic, like most Teuten from Westfalen. Fulfilling their religious duties was not easy in Denmark, since Lutheranism was the state religion there. It was not until 1767 that the first Catholic Church was founded there, in Fredericia , which was a refuge for many Catholic and also Calvinist foreigners, including Huguenots . Many people came here too. In 1764 a warehouse was set up in Horsens, which remained the central collection point for the Teuten until 1896 . In Haraldskærthey took over a copperworks factory threatened with destruction, which now started working exclusively for the trenches. A storage depot in Faaborg dates from 1789 and remained until 1816 , but even after that there were still sinks. [source?]

Meaning [ edit | edit source text ]

The well-organized teuten trade made a lot of money: the teuten were often richer than their fellow villagers, which was also evident from their beautiful houses. They contributed significantly to the local economy and did good works with their money. A number of modern companies have partly arisen from teuten capital. Some well-known of these are C&A and Unilever . One of the founders of the part Van den Bergh and Jurgens is Anton Jurgens who comes from a Teuten family in Nieuwenhagen near Heerlen, which has been mentioned since the middle of the 17th century. Originally they were textile traders, but the trade was expanded with trade in natural butter and the brothers Leonardus and Wilhelmus Jurgens went to live in Oss around 1800 . Son Anton bought the rights to produce artificial butter or margarine in France in 1871 , and this company was the foundation of Unilever.

Present [ edit | edit source text ]

260px-Hopsten_Toedde_1.jpg
 
De "Tödde" te Hopsten
  • In a number of places you can still see beautiful teuten houses, such as in Mettingen , Maarheeze , Budel , Eksel , Hamont , Sint-Huibrechts-Lille ( Neerpelt ) and the Simonshuis in Achel . A teuten house from Eksel has also been moved to the Open Air Museum in Bokrijk . There is a Teuten Museum in Mettingen.
  • In Luyksgestel one can see a bronze statue of a copper teut. This statue was made by Peter Roovers and placed in 1972 . It was revealed by the then ambassador to Denmark .
  • In Lommel there is a small statue of a teut on the market square.
  • In 1993, a statue of a textile prop was placed in the courtyard of the town hall in Hamont .
  • In various local history museums you can find objects related to the Teuten. This is the case in the Erfgoed Lommel museum and the Grevenbroek museum in Achel , which is located in the Simonshuis. The Simonshuis is also an authentic teuten house, as there are more to be found in the area (including around the market square in Hamont).
  • Families in the north of Limburg and neighboring North Brabant are still known as Teuten families. An example is the Verspeek family , on both sides of the border, who traditionally traded in textiles. Research yielded the first Verspeek in Eindhoven during the Eighty Years' War . He stood in a baptismal register as dyer registered. In the 19th century, members of this family also moved to the Rotterdam area, where descendants still live, as textile traders. The surname Verspeek can also be found in neighboring Germany .
Edited by Leif B. Mathiesen

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
JanMKeus

Kramers Nieuw Nederlands Woordenboek sier: Teuten = talmen, zeuren, niet opschieten. Også: wauwelen, kletsen

Som beskriver en person som går veldig langsom, ikke kommer seg av gårde. Wauwelen betyr å prate, skravle.

Teuten

1010.PNG?180520191) Aarzelen 2) Babbelen 3) Draaien 4) Dralen 5) Drentelen 6) Druilen 7) Hannesen 😎 Kletsen 9) Neuzelen 10) Seibelen 11) Talmen 12) Temen 13) Teutelen 14) Treuzelen 15) Volk van rondtrekkende kooplieden 16) Zaniken 17) Zeiken 18) Zeuren 19) Zinloos kletsen
 

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
Ivar S. Ertesvåg
22 minutter siden, JanMKeus skrev:

Kramers Nieuw Nederlands Woordenboek sier: Teuten = talmen, zeuren, niet opschieten. Også: wauwelen, kletsen

Som beskriver en person som går veldig langsom, ikke kommer seg av gårde. Wauwelen betyr å prate, skravle.

😎

 

altså å tyte (tyta) på norsk...

http://no2014.uib.no/perl/ordbok/no2014.cgi?soek=tyte#ariadne=[[|182204|,0,|tyte|],[|455594|,|0|,|tyta|]]

 

Men det stemmer vel ikkje heilt med det som står i wikipedia-artikkelen Leif Bjørn fann (og fekk omsett)?

 

Elles manglar ordet i "Deutsches Wörterbuch von Jacob Grimm und Wilhelm Grimm"  http://dwb.uni-trier.de/de/

Det gjeld både "teuten" og "tödden", som ifl wikipedia skal vere den tyske forma.  Det kan ikkje ha vore noko særleg vanleg brukt i tysk.

 

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
Terje Hatvik
Posted (edited)

Teuten = tyter = tater = splint/fant?

Ein teutenhandlar er vel då helst ein omvandrande og omvankande kramkar, som anten er - eller kan hende ikkje er - del av av eit splintefølgje, eit fantefølgje.

 

Edited by Terje Hatvik

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
Ivar Moe

Det er kanskje bedre forklart her.

 

https://www.bosland.be/over-bosland/rijke-cultuurhistorie/rondtrekkende-teuten/65/

 

Ett utdrag av artikkelen

 

Reiserute Teuten
Reisende handelsmenn eller teuten er et typisk fenomen for Nord-Limburg og hadde en avgjørende innflytelse på velstanden i hele regionen.

Kobber, keramikk og tekstiler
Teuten var omreisende handelsmenn og håndverkere. De fattige sandjordene tvang dem til å søke inntekt. Fra hjemmebasen dro de med varene sine til Luxembourg, Frankrike, Nederland og Tyskland. Noen dro helt til Danmark selv. De var hjemmefra ni måneder i året i gjennomsnitt. Teuten var organisert i selskaper. De solgte kobbervarer (gutenuts), keramikk (gleissteuten) og tekstiler (tafter).

Teutenhandelen startet på slutten av 1500-tallet og satte sitt preg på regionen til slutten av 1800 - begynnelsen av 1900-tallet, da ny utenlandsk lovgivning bragte en brå slutt på handelen med teuten. På torget i Lommel er en statue av en rekvisitt som handlet med kobbermaterialer. I Lommel kan du også glede deg over det såkalte Teuten-ølet, som er brygget på tradisjonell måte.

 

 

Jeg har også noe "Teuten" i den hollandske slekta. De solget for det meste keramikk,tobakk og tekstiler. Virker så de var godt organisert, og kan vel derfor ikke sammenlignes med omreisende etc slik vi kjenner dem fra Norge.

 

Mvh

Ivar

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
JanMKeus
På 7.4.2020 den 0.13, Ivar S. Ertesvåg skrev:

 

altså å tyte (tyta) på norsk...

http://no2014.uib.no/perl/ordbok/no2014.cgi?soek=tyte#ariadne=[[|182204|,0,|tyte|],[|455594|,|0|,|tyta|]]

 

Men det stemmer vel ikkje heilt med det som står i wikipedia-artikkelen Leif Bjørn fann (og fekk omsett)?

 

Elles manglar ordet i "Deutsches Wörterbuch von Jacob Grimm und Wilhelm Grimm"  http://dwb.uni-trier.de/de/

Det gjeld både "teuten" og "tödden", som ifl wikipedia skal vere den tyske forma.  Det kan ikkje ha vore noko særleg vanleg brukt i tysk.

 

Ivar, 
Når man uttaler teuten på "riktig" hollandsk hører man familielikhet med det tyske tödden.
Nordmenn skulle kanskje si tåjten. Jeg hører det også når nordmenn uttaler mitt navn Keus: kåjs.
Etymologisk er kanskje det tyske ordet eldst, og har hollendere bare overtatt det som begrep for reisende handelsmenn.
Mitt Etymologische woordenboek fra 1961 (Dr J de Vries) forklarer ordet med "å være langsom"=treuzelen.
Og forklarer ellers at teuten er en omforming fra andre hollandske ord med samme betydning, som tuiten og toeten. 

Mitt (gamle) Oosthoek Lexicon nevner ordet ikke det hele tatt.

JanM
 



 

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
Ivar S. Ertesvåg

tyte  (verb) på norsk kan tyde gnåle, mase;  altså om lag det same som " wauwelen", som du knytte til "teuten"

Norsk tyta skal kome av gammalnorsk  þjóta. Likskapen med "teuten" kan vere tilfeldig, men kanskje ikkje heilt?

 

Men - som sagt - "wauwelen" (og dermed tyte), har vel ikkje så mykje å gjere med 'tauten'  i den meininga Lars spør om her.

 

 

 

 

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
Svein Arnolf Bjørndal

Man kan kanskje tenke seg at omvandrende handelsmenn både gikk langsomt og maste for å få flest mulig til å kjøpe mest mulig?

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
Lars E. Øyane

Hjarteleg takk til Leif, Jan, Ivar E., Terje, Ivar M og Svein Arnolf for mange spennande og interessante innlegg!

 

Dette er nok eit handelsmannsyrke som me i «reindyrka» form ikkje kjenner i Noreg, og det er vel forlengst ogso borte på kontinentet.  Men eg har gjennom desse innleggi fått ein god idé om kva ein teutenhandlar var og oppfattar vel ein teutenhandlar som ein gamal form for «handelsreisande»...

 

Ein ny kjempetakk for den fine hjelpi!

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

Join the conversation

You can post now and register later. If you have an account, sign in now to post with your account.

Guest
Reply to this topic...

×   Pasted as rich text.   Paste as plain text instead

  Only 75 emoji are allowed.

×   Your link has been automatically embedded.   Display as a link instead

×   Your previous content has been restored.   Clear editor

×   You cannot paste images directly. Upload or insert images from URL.


  • Recently Browsing   0 members

    No registered users viewing this page.

×
×
  • Create New...

Important Information

We have placed cookies on your device to help make this website better. You can adjust your cookie settings, otherwise we'll assume you're okay to continue.